How Do You Evaluate Cooling Tower Performance?

How the effectiveness of cooling tower is determined?

iii) Cooling tower effectiveness (in percentage) is the ratio of range, to the ideal range, i.e., difference between cooling water inlet temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature, or in other words it is = Range / (Range + Approach)..

What does the cooling tower do?

A cooling tower is a specialized heat exchanger in which air and water are brought into direct contact with each other in order to reduce the water’s temperature. As this occurs, a small volume of water is evaporated, reducing the temperature of the water being circulated through the tower.

What is TR capacity in cooling towers?

Chiller Refrigeration Tons Some commercial and industrial refrigeration systems are rated in Tons of Refrigeration (TR, tons). A ton is the amount of heat removed by an air conditioning system that would melt 1 ton (2000 lbs.) of ice in 24 hours. The heat required to melt 1 lb of ice at 32 oF to water is 144 Btu.

What is blowdown water for cooling tower?

Water leaves a cooling tower system in one of four ways. … Blowdown: When water evaporates from the tower, dissolved solids (such as calcium, magnesium, chloride, and silica) remain in the recirculating water. As more water evaporates, the concentration of dissolved solids increases.

What industries use cooling towers?

The primary industries that use cooling towers include petroleum refineries, chemical manufacturing plants, primary metals processing plants, glass manufacturing plants, rubber products manufacturing plants, tobacco products manufacturing plants, and textile manufacturing plants.

What are the components of a cooling tower?

Cooling tower componentsCooling tower packing. Cooling tower packing is one of the most important parts of a cooling tower. … Drift separators. Drift separators have the purpose of preventing droplets or smaller aerosols from being taken by the air flow from the cooling tower.Gear and fans. … Water distribution system. … Air intake louvers.

What are the parameters affect to performance of cooling tower?

Several parameters as Cooling range, Wet bulb temperature, Mass flow rate of water, Tower height, Air velocity through tower and many other things that affect the performance of cooling tower. For a good designer all this parameter would want to mind for proper designing and functioning of cooling tower.

What are the types of cooling towers?

The types of cooling towers based on the air flow generation are Natural draft, Mechanical draft, Cross-flow and Counter-flow towers.Natural Draft cooling towers use the design and shape of the tower itself to move up the air naturally using fans. … Mechanical Draft towers tend to use a fan to force the air.More items…•

What causes scaling in cooling towers?

Scale deposits form when the solubility of dissolved minerals in the cooling water is exceeded. Cooling towers function by evaporating a percentage of the water into the atmosphere.

What is the lowest temperature a cooling tower can produce?

In colder climates, many designers and operators are concerned with operating cooling towers in subfreezing temperatures. By following some simple operating guidelines, cooling towers can and have been successfully operated in very cold climates (-15°C / 5°F) as shown in the photograph at right.

How do you calculate water for a cooling tower?

Water Make-Up Requirements of Cooling Towers Approximately 1,000 BTU’s are required to evaporate . 12 gallons of water. Therefore, every tower ton (15,000 BTU/hr) requires approximately 1.8 gallons of water evaporation, or . 03 gpm/ton.

How can I improve my cooling tower performance?

How to Improve Water Efficiency on Your Cooling TowerPiping Change. Simple repairs like a change to the water piping can help you mange your energy consumption. … Focus on Recycling. … Periodically Inspect all Equipment. … Increase Cooling Cycles.

What are spray nozzles used for on a cooling tower?

Spray nozzles with plate are used to distribute water in wet cooling towers. Cooling towers are evaporative heat rejection devices, which take out the waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of water by the air.

How do you calculate air flow in a cooling tower?

The formula is total heat removed (11.2) times pounds per minute of air (6.95) times 60 minutes per hour. 11.2 X 6.95 X 60 = 4, 670.4 BTU/Hr. Therefore, a tower with a 100 CFM motor at these conditions would be removing 4,670.4 BTU/Hr.

What is the working principle of cooling tower?

Cooling tower systems work by using water to extract waste heat from a system and ejecting it into the atmosphere primarily through evaporation. The three key components of a cooling system are the cooling tower, recirculating pump, and heat exchanger. Water first passes through a heat exchanger where it absorbs heat.